Comprehensive Tritium Review Published

March 19, 2021

A Comprehensive Review Article has just been Published in J. of Nuclear Fusion titled "Physics and technology considerations for the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and conditions for tritium fuel self sufficiency" by Mohamed Abdou, Marco Riva, Alice Ying, Christian Day, Alberto Loarte, L.R. Baylor, Paul Humrickhouse, Thomas F. Fuerst and Seungyon Cho. It can be accessed at:


This is a comprehensive review and analysis of the state-of-the art and required R&D for the physics and technology of the DT Cycle. It is Co-authored by 7 experts and world leaders in plasma physics, fueling technology, tritium processing, blanket, and safety.

A Detailed Table of Contents in the paper helps readers navigate through the many complex topics. There are 194 references.

Topics and Sections of the Paper:

  1. Introduction
  2. Description of the Fuel Cycle
  3. Dynamic Fuel Cycle Models to determine time-dependent Tritium Flow Rates and Inventories, and perform Self-Sufficiency Analysis and Start-up Assessment
  4. Tritium Inventories and Self-Sufficiency Analysis
  5. Calculation of the Required Tritium Start-up Inventory and Assessment of the Availability of External Tritium Supply for Start-up of near- and long-term Fusion Facilities
  6. Plasma Physics Aspects of the Tritium Burn Fraction and Predictions for ITER and Beyond
  7. Plasma Fueling Technology and Predictions of Fueling Efficiency for ITER and DEMO Based on Experiments and Modelling
  8. Tritium Safety
  9. Options for Tritium Fuel Cycle Technology for DEMO and Required R&D
  10. Summary